International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Since Year 2012 | Open Access | Fully Refereed | Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064




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Review Papers | Psychology Science | India | Volume 11 Issue 5, May 2022


Craniofacial Anomalies (CFA): A Stigma in India

Tamanna Borah [2] | Dr. Krishnakali Bhattacharyya


Abstract: Craniofacial Anomalies (CFA) is an umbrella term which consists of malformations and underdevelopment of the skull and facial bones in individuals. These abnormalities are birth defects as these facial and skull deformities are usually present from birth (congenital). CFA can range in severity from mild, moderate and severe. Some of the common CFA include: 1) CLEFT LIP AND PALATE-A separation in the lip and the palate. 2) CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS -Premature closure of the soft spots in an infant?s skull. 3) HEMIFACIAL MICROSOMIA-A condition in which the tissues on one side of the face are underdeveloped. 4) VASCULAR MALFORMATION-An abnormal growth composed of blood vessels. 5) HAEMANGIOMA-A benign tumour that causes a red birthmark. The purpose of the paper is to create an understanding of what is CFA and its impact in an individual?s life. This paper also throws light on the stigma surrounding CFA mainly in India. The objectives of the paper are: a) Understanding CFA through medical lenses. B) Understanding CFA from a psychological perspective. C) Understanding CFA in a holistic perception. D) To spread awareness of different policies, organizations, and treatments.


Keywords: Craniofacial Anomalies, Types of Craniofacial Anomalies, Causes of Craniofacial Anomalies, Stigma in India, Management Plan, Treatment Plan, Advancement in India, Craniofacial Anomalies in Children, Craniofacial Anomalies in Adolescents, Perception Towards Craniofacial Anomalies, NGOS, Policies


Edition: Volume 11 Issue 5, May 2022,


Pages: 655 - 671

Craniofacial Anomalies (CFA): A Stigma in India


How to Cite this Article?

Tamanna Borah, Dr. Krishnakali Bhattacharyya, "Craniofacial Anomalies (CFA): A Stigma in India", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=SR22502135244, Volume 11 Issue 5, May 2022, 655 - 671, #ijsrnet

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