International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Since Year 2012 | Open Access | Fully Refereed | Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064




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Research Paper | Environmental Science Studies | United Arab Emirates | Volume 11 Issue 1, January 2022


Household Exposure to Incense and Respiratory Symptoms

Dalal Abdullatif Almaghrabi | Maryam Hamad Alghfeli


Abstract: Burning incense is a relevant practice in the Arab world, applied to combat unpleasant odors by emitting a pleasant refreshing aroma in houses. The smoke of incense has diverse gas pollutants, and due to their hazardous effects on human health (such as being linked to cause indoor air pollution by World Health Organization (WHO), thus affecting the health). Therefore, this research project was conducted with objectives of determining the concentration levels of gases (Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Sulfur dioxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Nitrogen dioxide, Benzene, Formaldehyde, Total hydrocarbon, and Styrene) emitted from using three types of incense, Oud, Bakhour, and Frankincense ?Luban? used in the houses on daily basis. Thirty exposed house members were surveyed to assess their respiratory health. The method used for the detection of gases and assessment of health effects were the Draeger Accuro Pump with the Draeger Tubes, along with a respiratory health questionnaire. Results showed that Oud has the highest emissions of gases compared to the other two types, then follows Frankincense ?luban?, and the least was Bakhour. Moreover, Carbon dioxide, Styrene, Benzene, Carbon monoxide, and Formaldehyde were the common gases with the highest concentrations in all three incense types used. Thus, can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system. Additionally, Carbon dioxide was the only gas detected before the burn of incense, and was the highest during the burning. Recommendations included switching to electrical appliances for the burn of incense, along with ensuring proper ventilation, and lastly, is to reduce the practice of incense burning instead of daily, to weekly or monthly.


Keywords: Indoor Air Quality, Indoor Air pollution, Gasses emissions, Respiratory Symptoms


Edition: Volume 11 Issue 1, January 2022,


Pages: 589 - 594

Household Exposure to Incense and Respiratory Symptoms


How to Cite this Article?

Dalal Abdullatif Almaghrabi, Maryam Hamad Alghfeli, "Household Exposure to Incense and Respiratory Symptoms", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=SR211215100854, Volume 11 Issue 1, January 2022, 589 - 594, #ijsrnet

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