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Research Paper | Crop Science | Nigeria | Volume 2 Issue 4, April 2013
Phytochemical Constituents of some Medicinal Plants
Mbadianya J. I | Echezona B. C | Ugwuoke K. I | Wokocha R. C
Abstract: In this study, five medicinal plants materials were analysed in order to investigate the presence of phytochemicals and to determine amount of tannin, glucosides, hydrogen cyanide, steroid, soluble carbohydrate, flavonoid and alkaloid in the five selected medicinal plants. The five test plant materials were Azadirachta indica leaves, Garcinia cola seeds, Zingiber officinale stem, Gongronema latifolia leaves and Carica papaya leaves. Phytochemical analysis done on Azadirachta indica A Juss, Garcinia cola Henkel, Zingiber officinale Rose, Gongronema latifolia L. and Carica papaya L. revealed the presence of tannin, soluble carbohydrate, hydrogen cyanide, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids as well as glucosides in all the extracts tested. It also showed the levels of tannin, soluble carbohydrate, hydrogen cyanide, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids and glucosides in the plants tested ranged from 0.01 mg/100 g – 1.97 mg/100 g. G. latifolia (1.23 mg/100 g) had the highest concentrations of tannin followed by C. papaya, (1.19 mg/100 g) while A. indica (0.41 mg/100 g) had the least concentrations in all the extracts. Soluble carbohydrate and hydrogen cyanide were present in small concentrations in all the extracts evaluated. Steroid was moderately high in G. latifolia (1.97 mg/100 g) and A. indica (1.69 mg/100g) than the other three extracts. G. cola (1.70 mg/100 g) had the highest quantity of flavonoid followed by C. papaya (1.54 mg/100g), while Z. officinale (0.87 mg/100g) had the least quantity. The levels of alkaloids in all the plant extracts tested were moderately high. Again, all the plant extracts tested had small levels of gucosides. Our finding provided evidence that crude, aqueous and organic solvent extracts these tested plants contain medicinally important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases and as pesticides used especially by the peasant farmers who cannot afford the costly synthetic agrochemicals to control plant pathogens that attack their crops.
Keywords: Phytochemical, tannins, flavonoids, Azadirachta indica, Garcinia cola seeds, Zingiber officinale, Gongronema latifolia and Carica papaya
Edition: Volume 2 Issue 4, April 2013,
Pages: 18 - 22