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Informative Article | Nanotechnology | India | Volume 7 Issue 6, June 2018
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
Abstract: Nanoscience primarily deals with synthesis, characterization, exploration, and exploitation of nanostructured materials. These materials are characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range. A nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a meter, or 109 m. One nanometer is approximately the length equivalent to 10 hydrogen or 5 silicon atoms aligned in a line. The processing, structure and properties of materials with grain size in the tens to several hundreds of nanometer range are research areas of considerable interest over the past years. A revolution in materials science and engineering is taking place as researchers find ways to pattern and characterize materials at the nanometer length scale. New materials with outstanding electrical, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties are rapidly being developed for use in information technology, bioengineering, and energy and environmental applications. On nanoscale, some physical and chemical material properties can differ significantly from those of the bulk structured materials of the same composition, for example, the theoretical strength of nanomaterials can be reached or quantum effects may appear, crystals in the nanometer scale have a low melting point (the difference can be as large as 1000C) and reduced lattice constants, since the number of surface atoms or ions becomes a significant fraction of the total number of atoms or ions and the surface energy plays a significant role in the thermal stability. Therefore, many material properties must now be revisited in light of the fact that a considerable increase in surface-to-volume ratio is associated with the reduction in material size to the nanoscale, often having a prominent effect on material performance. Historically, fundamental material properties such as elastic modulus have been characterized in bulk specimens using macroscopic, and more recently microscopic, techniques. However, as nanofabrication advances continue, these bulk properties are no longer sufficient to predict performance when devices are fabricated with small critical dimensions.
Keywords: Nanomaterials, Carbon nano tubes, Quantum confinement
Edition: Volume 7 Issue 6, June 2018,
Pages: 946 - 953
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