International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Since Year 2012 | Open Access | Fully Refereed | Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064




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Research Paper | Medical Surgical | Zambia | Volume 6 Issue 5, May 2017


How Clean is the University Teaching Hospital Phase III Theatre Tap Water in Zambia for Use in the Orthopaedic Wound Irrigation

Dr Shadrick G Lungu [2]


Abstract: Ethics committee This was sought and approved prior to the study. Objective To evaluate how clean tap water from the Phase III was theatres of the University Teaching Hospital of Lusaka, Zambia to be used in orthopaedic wound irrigation. Rationale Orthopaedic wound irrigation requires huge volumes of wound cleaning agents to abate or reduce wound/bone infection. And traditionally in orthopaedic wound irrigation, sterile normal saline was a liquid of choice. This of course would cost a lot of money. The rationale therefore was to see if tap water would be used instead of the normal saline but without compromising the outcome of orthopaedic wound care ultimately, while managing the cost of wound care. However, before the tap water could be used on the orthopaedic wounds, a bacteriological study of how clean the tap was in the Phase III theatres of the University Teaching Hospital was done. Methodology The author engaged the personnel from the Foods and Drugs Laboratory, under the Ministry of Health, to go round the theatre rooms where orthopaedic operations were conducted to sample the tap water and later subject the samples to bacteriology tests. The theatre rooms sampled were theatres 3, 5 and 8 of the Phase III theatres at the UTH. The taps were labeled /marked UTH / PH3 / TH (number) Tap 1 to 12). So a total of twelve taps were sampled at different times and days. Not all the taps in one theatre room were sample on the same day. The sampling started from the 17th June 1998 to 2nd July 1998. Materials used before sampling were methylated spirit and a match stick (to light the spirit). The tap was turned on to allow the water run first, and then turned off, then the methylated spirit was sprinkle on the tap including the outlet and finally lit. After the methylated spirit burned itself off, then the tap was turned on again and the sample taken in sterile lab bottles. This procedure was repeated on every tap throughout the study period. Other materials used were Mac Conkey agar, Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, and plate and Count Agar. The samples so collected were then transported to the laboratory and were then subjected to the appropriate tests, after which a written report was produced. The reports were compiled and later submitted to the author. Results All the samples analyzed for faecal coliforms and Escherichia Coli tested negative for the said micro organisms. Conclusion The tap water in the University Teaching Hospital Phase III theatres were safe to be used in the orthopaedic wound irrigation.


Keywords: Tap water, orthopaedic wounds, wound irrigation, bacteriology


Edition: Volume 6 Issue 5, May 2017,


Pages: 2472 - 2474


How to Cite this Article?

Dr Shadrick G Lungu, "How Clean is the University Teaching Hospital Phase III Theatre Tap Water in Zambia for Use in the Orthopaedic Wound Irrigation", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 6 Issue 5, May 2017, pp. 2472-2474, https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=ART20173649

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