International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Since Year 2012 | Open Access | Double Blind Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064



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Research Paper | Meteorology Science | Saudi Arabia | Volume 3 Issue 8, August 2014


Variation of Surface Temperature over AL-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, (1978 -2013)

Abdellatif Esawy A. Abdou [2] | Turki M. Habeebullah [2]


Abstract: The temperature variation and distribution over 36 years period (1978 to 2013) in AL-Madinah Al-Munawarah, the second holiest city for all Muslims, have been studied using Regression analysis and Theil-Sen nonparametric test. The monthly mean of mean (Tmmean), maximum (Tmmax) and minimum (Tmmin) temperatures levels and their trends have been investigated. The trends in deviations from the reference period (19782013) are analyzed. The results showed that: The number of hot days and hot nights increased annually by 0.6216 day and 0.6122 night, respectively, while the number of cold days and cold nights decreased annually by 0.1368 day and 0.5275 night. This implies that during the entire period the numbers of hot days increased by 22.3776 days while the number of hot nights increased by 22.0392 nights. The monthly mean of daily mean temperature (Tmmean) have increased annually with 0.0223C, 0.0704C, 0.0505C, 0.0267C, 0.0327C, 0.0303C, 0.0549C, 0.0762C, 0.0315C, 0.0449C, 0.0325C while the total increases during the entire period were 0.8028C, 2.5344C, 1.8252C, 0.9612C, 1.1772C, 1.0908C, 1.9764C, 2.7432C, 1.134C, 1.6164C, 1.17C and 1.1556C in January to December respectively The monthly mean of daily maximum temperature (Tmmax) have increased annually with 0.0243C, 0.0768C, 0.0679C, 0.0332C, 0.0366C, 0.0296C, 0.0476C, 0.0817C, 0.0312C, 0.048C, 0.0292C and 0.0382C while the total increases during the entire period are 0.8748C, 2.7648C, 2.444C, 1.1952C, 1.3176C, 1.0656C, 1.7136C, 2.941C, 1.1232C, 1.728C, 1.0512C and 1.3752C in January to December respectively. The monthly mean of daily minimum temperature (Tmmin) have increased annually with 0.0133C, 0.0644C, 0.0275C, 0.0207C, 0.0208C, 0.0408C, 0.0701C, 0.0938C, 0.0437C, 0.0412C, 0.0328C and 0.0265C while the total increases during the entire period are 0.4788C, 2.3184C, 0.99C, 0.7452C, 0.7488C, 2.5236C, 3.3768C, 1.5732C, 1.4832C, 1.1808C and 0.954C in January to December respectively. The annual mean of daily mean temperature (Tamean), daily maximum temperature (Tamax) and daily minimum temperature (Tamin) have increased by 0.0421C, 0.0454C and 0.0413C per year, and 1.5156C, 1.6344C, 1.4868C respectively during the full period Both Regression analysis and Theil-Sen test demonstrated positive trends in mean, minimum and maximum temperature levels. Trends are determined for various sub-annuals (months and seasons) and annual basis of the entire period and showed that AL-Madinah Almunawarah is suffering from a considerable warming temperature trend which requires specific attention towards the energy demands for extra cooling, medical preparedness and water resources.


Keywords: Extreme temperature, heat waves, temperature trends, AL-Madinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia


Edition: Volume 3 Issue 8, August 2014,


Pages: 1734 - 1752


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How to Cite this Article?

Abdellatif Esawy A. Abdou, Turki M. Habeebullah, "Variation of Surface Temperature over AL-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, (1978 -2013)", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 3 Issue 8, August 2014, pp. 1734-1752, https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=2015809



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